Lifespan Psychology: Learning Measures for Chapters 12 – 19)
Chapter 12 is a crossword puzzle
Physical and Cognitive Development
in Early Adulthood
1) The adult years are difficult to divide into discrete periods because
A) biological aging does not begin until middle adulthood.
B) the timing of important milestones varies greatly among individuals.
C) the physical changes of the adult years are one-dimensional.
D) the physical changes of the adult years are unidirectional.
2) Which of the following is true about the “wear-and-tear” theory of aging?
A) Evidence suggests a moderate relationship between physical activity and early death.
B) Cross-cultural research supports the idea that the body eventually wears out from use.
C) Despite its benefits, vigorous exercise in adulthood is linked to frequent injuries, such as bone breaks and muscle tears.
D) Regular, moderate-to-vigorous exercise predicts a longer life, which is contrary to the theory.
3) Dr. Rodin is conducting a study on environmental factors that contribute to telomere length. Dr. Rodin can
expect to find that telomere shortening
A) predicts longevity.
B) is related to slowed disease progression.
C) predicts earlier death.
D) occurs earlier in women than men.
4) When adults make positive lifestyle changes, telomeres
A) decrease in number.
B) respond by shortening.
C) multiply in number.
D) respond by lengthening.
5) Jay wants to protect the health of his endocrine system. The safest approach for Jay is
A) a healthy diet and physical activity.
B) hormone therapy.
C) genetic reconstruction.
D) cellular therapy.
6) Darlene has heavy
deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats collected on the walls of
her main arteries.
7) The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that neutralize or destroy _________ in the body.
A) T cells
B) B cells
8) _____________ originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, and attack foreign substances directly.
A) T cells
B) B cells
9) __________ show(s) strong and continuous relationships with almost every disease and health indicator.
A) Gender, temperament, and personality
B) Income, education, and occupational status
C) Quality of family and peer relationships
D) Size of family and number of marriages
10) When overweight and obesity rates are combined, ____ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight.
11) Between the 1970s and 1990s, the rise in daily caloric intake
A) increased by almost 100 calories.
B) increased by over 500 calories.
C) was enough to add an extra pound every 20 days.
D) was enough to add 5 extra pounds every month.
12) About 40 percent of Americans engage in
A) moderate leisure-time physical activity five times a week.
B) light exercise daily, with occasional moderate-to-heavy exercise.
C) no regular brief sessions of even light activity.
D) high-intensity exercise at least three times per week.
13) Regular physical activity is linked to
A) repetitive injuries, particularly in the joints.
B) slight declines T-cell production.
C) reduced incidence of cancer.
D) reduced energy, but improving mood.
14) Which of the following is true about exercise?
A) It strengthens the heart muscle and increases blood pressure.
B) It produces high-density lipoproteins that help remove LDLs.
C) It produces a form of “good cholesterol” known as LDLs.
D) It decreases neural activity in the cerebral cortex.
15) The most commonly abused substances in the United States are
A) cigarettes and alcohol.
B) alcohol and marijuana.
C) cigarettes and over-the-counter medications.
D) alcohol and prescription medications.
16) Charles drinks alcohol often and is unable to limit his alcohol use. Which of the following is probably also true about Charles?
A) His alcoholism probably started in his twenties or thirties.
B) He probably lives in a culture where alcohol is a traditional part of ceremonial activities.
C) He is also a heavy cigarette smoker.
D) He is probably a social drinker who uses alcohol as a leisure activity.
17) Alcoholism is a more common problem in cultures where alcohol is
A) regularly served to and around minors.
B) a traditional part of ceremonial activities.
C) a common part of religious activities.
D) a carefully controlled sign of adulthood.
18) Which of the following statements about alcohol use in adulthood is true?
A) Alcohol induces anxiety at first but relieves stress over time.
B) About half of police activities in large cities involve alcohol-related offenses.
C) Almost 25 percent of fatal car crashes in the U.S. involve alcohol.
D) The most effective prevention strategy for reducing alcohol abuse is to raise the minimum drinking age to 25.
19) The most successful treatment for alcoholism
A) is medication that makes the individual sick if he or she consumes alcohol.
B) combines antidepressants with individual therapy.
C) combines counseling, group support, and aversion therapy.
D) is short-term incarceration or hospitalization.
20) Ann Marie has begun visiting matchmaking websites. She should know that
A) the success rates for Internet dating services are higher than with conventional strategies.
B) online dating leads to lasting offline relationships about 30 percent of the time.
C) less than 10 percent of online relationships last for more than six months.
D) 18 percent of online ties that evolve into offline relationships last for more than a year.
21) Contemporary men and women
A) have fewer sexual partners over their lifetimes than a generation ago.
B) differ little in average number of lifetime sexual partners.
C) differ significantly in average number of lifetime sexual partners.
D) have sex less often than those of a generation ago.
22) When adults of any age are asked how many sexual partners they have had in the past year, the usual reply is
A) one. B) two.
C) three. D) none.
23) Which statement most accurately reflects the sentiments of most Americans toward gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals?
A) Most Americans are opposed to homosexuality and do not support civil liberties or same-sex marriage.
B) Most Americans support civil liberties and equal employment opportunities for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.
C) Most Americans approve of same-sex marriage and would advocate on behalf of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals if asked.
D) Most Americans believe that it is okay for two adults of the same sex to have sexual relations as long as they do not talk about it.
24) The overall rate of STDs is higher among women than men because
A) while men have more sexual partners than women, women are less likely to use adequate protection.
B) it is at least twice as easy for a man to infect a woman with any STD as it is for a woman to infect a man.
C) women tend to receive less information about safe sexual practices.
D) rates of promiscuity in the last decade have risen sharply in U.S. women.
25) Currently, AIDS is spreading most rapidly in the United States through
A) homosexual contact among gay men.
B) heterosexual contact among young adults in high-SES areas.
C) heterosexual contact among men who have many sexual partners.
D) heterosexual contact in poverty-stricken minority groups.
Emotional and Social Development
in early adulthood
26) Which of the following is an accurate statement about risk and resilience in emerging adulthood?
A) Emerging adults are susceptible to many risks due to their poor decision making and uncertainty about the future.
B) Feelings of loneliness are higher during the emerging adulthood years than at any other time in life.
C) College students who feel securely attached to their parents tend to have difficulty adjusting to living on campus.
D) Emerging adults with information-gathering cognitive styles tend to be the least resilient.
27) According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is
A) initiative versus guilt.
B) industry versus inferiority.
C) identity versus role confusion.
D) intimacy versus isolation.
28) Some aspects of ____________, such as childbearing and child rearing, are under way in early adulthood.
B) ego integrity
D) identity diffusion
29) Which of the following individuals is the most likely to experience a psychological crisis during the age-30 transition?
A) Miles, who has no romantic relationships and a dissatisfying job
B) Roberta, a successful office manager with a good marriage
C) Carlos, a divorced man who runs an expanding chain of stores
D) Grace, a happily married stay-at-home mom with three children
30) According to Vaillant, men become “keepers of meaning,” or guardians of their culture, in their
B) thirties and forties.
C) fifties and sixties.
31) Which of the following is true about mate selection?
A) Romantic love is rarely an important factor in mate selection.
B) Little support exists for the idea that opposites attract.
C) People rarely select partners that resemble themselves.
D) U.S. women are increasingly selecting mates who are younger than them.
32) According to Sternberg’s triangular theory of love,
A) in most cultures, “opposites attract.”
B) intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.
C) initial passion turns into intimacy, which then leads to commitment.
D) passion develops after commitment is established.
33) An important feature of good communication in a romantic relationship is
A) passionate love.
B) constructive criticism.
C) constructive conflict resolution.
D) quiet reflection.
34) Which of the following is true about perceptions of intimate relationships in Eastern cultures?
A) Trying to satisfy dependency needs through an intimate bond is regarded as immature.
B) Mature intimate relationships are based on autonomy and intense emotion.
C) Young people today do not consider love to be a prerequisite for marriage.
D) In choosing a mate, young people are expected to consider obligations to others.
35) Friendship continuity is greater for _______, in part because they _______.
A) women; see one another more often
B) women; have friendlier dispositions
C) men; see one another more often
D) men; have a greater competitive nature
36) Which of the following is true about gender differences in adult friendships?
A) Men have more intimate same-sex friendships than women.
B) Female friends often say they prefer to “just talk” when they get together.
C) Women prefer to “do something” when they get together with same-sex friends.
D) Women are more reluctant than men to divulge information about themselves.
37) __________ is the defining characteristic of family ties.
38) Which of the following is true about loneliness?
A) Loneliness peaks during middle adulthood, then declines into the early part of late adulthood.
B) Women not involved in a romantic relationship feel lonelier than men because they have fewer alternatives.
C) Single, married, or cohabiting adults are lonelier than their separated, widowed, or divorced counterparts.
D) Loneliness rises during early adulthood because young adults expect more from their intimate ties.
39) Immigrants from collectivist cultures report
A) higher levels of loneliness than people born in the United States and Canada.
B) similar levels of loneliness to native-born Westerners.
C) lower levels of loneliness than native-born Americans.
D) low levels of intimacy in most romantic relationships.
40) Leaving home very early is associated with a(n)
A) high level of education.
B) successful married life.
C) high level of social support.
D) unsuccessful work life.
41) What percent of Americans marry at least once?
42) The average age of first marriage in the United States has
A) increased for both men and women over the last half century.
B) decreased for both men and women over the last two decades.
C) remained constant for men but increased for women over the last decade.
D) increased for women, but decreased for men.
43) ________ is the most consistent predictor of marital stability.
A) Religious similarity
B) Age of marriage
C) Acceptance of in-laws
D) Educational level
44) Which of the following statements about marriage is a myth?
A) Most couples spend little time before the wedding day reflecting on the decision to marry.
B) The single best predictor of marital satisfaction is the quality of a couple’s sex life.
C) Marital happiness is grounded in mutual respect, joint problem solving, and companionship.
D) Marriage often involves the need to reshape the relationship in response to new circumstances.
45) Which of the following statements is true about violence in families?
A) Most perpetrators eventually take responsible for their actions.
B) When researchers ask American couples about fights that led to acts of hostility, men and women report similar rates of assault.
C) Partner abuse occurs far less often in homosexual relationships than in heterosexual relationships.
D) American men are twice as likely as American women to “strike first” in a fight, while women are more likely to resort to assault in self-defense.
46) Which of these factors is most likely to lead to partner abuse?
A) The victim is jealous, dependent, and possessive.
B) The victim is possessive, anxious, and independent.
C) The abuser is indifferent and distant toward the spouse.
D) The abuser is dependent, jealous, and possessive.
47) Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties
A) causes greater marital strain.
B) eases the transition to parenthood.
C) causes gender roles to become more androgynous.
D) decreases the likelihood of the father’s involvement in child care.
48) Which of the following is true about parenting young children?
A) Most parents advocate strict discipline for misbehavior.
B) Rearing young children is a powerful source of adult development.
C) Parents often disagree about appropriate discipline for preschool-age children.
D) Mothers use more consistent discipline with preschoolers than fathers.
49) Parents of __________ often report a dip in marital and life satisfaction.
C) school-age children
50) In view of recent trends, it is likely that most Americans will spend a substantial part of their adult lives
C) in a second marriage.
D) as a stepparent.
Chapter 15 is a crossword puzzle
Chapter 16 is a crossword puzzle
Physical and Cognitive Development
in Late Adulthood
51) Improved nutrition, medical treatment, and sanitation all help account for the dramatic increase in _________ in the twentieth century.
A) active living age
B) the life expectancy crossover
C) functional age
D) average life expectancy
52) The _________ is believed to be responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.
A) gender difference in alcohol consumption
B) protective value of the extra X chromosome
C) risk factor of the extra Y chromosome
D) gender difference in preventative health care
53) Currently, an elder in _________ can expect to live the longest in full health, without disease or injury.
C) the United States
54) In developing nations with widespread poverty, average healthy life expectancy is reduced by ___________ years, compared with the industrialized world.
A) 5 to 7
B) 10 to 12
C) 15 to 20
D) 30 to 40
55) Around age 85, a life expectancy crossover occurs in that
A) surviving members of low-SES ethnic minority groups live longer than members of the white majority.
B) surviving members of the white majority live longer than members of low-SES ethnic minority groups.
C) men outnumber women by a ratio of about 3 to 1.
D) differences in rates of chronic illness between high-SES and low-SES groups increase with age.
56) Naomi, age 75, needs help bathing, dressing, and getting into bed. She has difficulty performing
A) secondary responsibilities of active functioning.
B) primary activities of active functioning.
C) instrumental activities of daily living.
D) activities of daily living.
57) The _______ lobes of the brain show greater shrinkage during aging.
58) One way older adults compensate for neuron loss is
A) with an increase in glial cells, which myelinate neural fibers.
B) to call on additional brain regions to support cognitive processing.
C) with increased efficiency of the central nervous system.
D) with increased efficiency of the autonomic nervous system.
59) In late life, more women than men report being ________ impaired, and more men than women ________ impaired.
A) visually; hearing
B) hearing; visually
C) sensory; physically
D) physically; sensory
60) Yuki’s reduced sensitivity to sweet, salty, sour, and bitter flavors was evident by age 60, but __________ can help make her food more attractive.
A) socializing at mealtimes
B) artistic arrangements
C) trying new recipes
D) flavor additives
61) A reduction in the sense of touch primarily affects the
62) The primary effect of the normal age-related changes in the functioning of the heart is
A) increased blood flow throughout the circulatory system.
B) softer, thinner artery walls.
C) higher heart rates during exercise.
D) slower blood flow throughout the circulatory system.
63) ___________ affect(s) nearly half of older adults at least a few nights per month.
A) Sleep apnea
B) Restless legs
D) Frequent nighttime urination
64) Which of the following is true about sleep apnea?
A) It affects more women than men.
B) Those who are underweight are especially prone to it.
C) It affects more men than women.
D) It is common among the elderly is rarely dangerous.
65) Elders who ________________ adapt more favorably and feel better about it.
A) see aging as inevitable and uncontrollable
B) generate new, problem-centered coping strategies for aging
C) use cosmetics and surgery to combat aging
D) ruminate about the effects of aging
66) Because he has mobility problems, Mr. Dow has a phone that can be dialed and answered by voice commands. This is an example of
A) a smart-device.
B) selective optimization with compensation.
C) assistive technology.
D) assisted living.
67) In China and Japan,
A) anti-aging products are commonly used.
B) younger adults are more likely to view physical aging with pessimism.
C) an aging appearance can be a source of pride.
D) seniors are portrayed as frail and dependent.
68) Karl, age 78, takes a daily vitamin-mineral supplement. This could result in
A) an enhanced immune response.
B) a reduction in the incidence of cancer.
C) a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disease.
D) improvements in cognitive functioning and memory.
69) Which of the following is true about exercise for elders?
A) “Taking it easy” is the best treatment for many chronic diseases.
B) About 70 percent of U.S. elders participate in regular exercise.
C) As many as 75 percent of elderly men and 80 percent of elderly women are not active enough.
D) Physically active seniors are at high risk for injury.
70) Which of the following is true about sexuality in late adulthood?
A) A majority of elders attribute little to no importance to sex.
B) Most healthy elder couples report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.
C) Men are more likely than women to lose interest in sex.
D) Health problems prevent sexual activity in nearly 80 percent of adults over age 65.
71) The only leading cause of death that is more prevalent among women is
B) cardiovascular disease.
72) Which of the following is true about osteoarthritis?
A) Almost all older adults show some sign of the condition on X-rays.
B) It involves inflammation of connective tissue in the entire body.
C) Worldwide, about 2 percent of older adults have the condition.
D) It often results in a serious loss of mobility and can affect the heart and lungs.
73) ____________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in the elderly and an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
B) Rheumatoid arthritis
D) Unintentional injury
74) Which statement about elderly drivers and motor vehicle accidents is true?
A) Because of anxiety over declining vision, elders tend to drive less and, consequently, are at low risk for traffic accidents and fatalities.
B) They have higher rates of traffic violations, accidents, and fatalities per mile driven than any other age group.
C) Compared with young drivers, the elderly are less likely to drive quickly and recklessly but more likely to fail to heed signs, yield the right of way, and turn appropriately.
D) They are at low risk for collisions at intersections because they tend to compensate for slower reflexes by being extra cautious.
75) ____________ memory shows the smallest decline as people age.
Emotional and Social Development
in Late Adulthood
76) The final psychological conflict of Erikson’s theory, _______ versus _________, involves coming to terms with one’s life.
A) intimacy; guilt
B) initiative; isolation
C) ego integrity; despair
D) industry; intimacy
77) Which of the following is associated with ego integrity?
A) higher SES
B) increased isolation
C) greater self-acceptance
D) increased gender contentment
78) According to Erikson, despair occurs
A) when elders feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.
B) with the realization that the integrity of one’s own life is part of an extended chain of human existence.
C) when elders have the capacity to view their own lives in the larger context of all humanity.
D) when elders attempt to adapt to the mix of triumphs and disappointments that are an inevitable part of life.
79) According to Robert Peck, for those who invested heavily in their careers, ____________ involves finding other ways to affirm self-worth through family, friendship, and community life.
A) body transcendence
B) ego transcendence
C) vocational differentiation
D) ego differentiation
80) While 80-year-old Naomi’s contemporaries have died, she faces the reality of death constructively through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations. According to Peck, Naomi has attained
A) body transcendence.
B) ego transcendence.
C) ego differentiation.
D) future differentiation.
81) In Peck’s theory, ____________ requires older adults to move beyond their life’s work, their bodies, and their separate identities by investing in a future that extends beyond their own lifespan.
A) ego differentiation
B) body transcendence
C) ego integrity
D) ego transcendence
82) Erikson’s widow, Joan Erikson, suggested an additional stage of psychosocial development called
83) Joan Erikson speculated that success in attaining gerotranscendence is apparent in
A) higher marital satisfaction.
B) greater community involvement.
C) displaying socioemotional selectivity.
D) heightened inner calm.
84) Mr. Sarandon recalls past experiences with the goal of achieving a greater self-understanding. Mr. Sarandon is engaged in
A) life review.
85) Today’s elders in industrialized nations are largely
A) focused on the past.
B) present- and future-oriented.
D) focused on the inevitability of death.
86) Elders have accumulated a lifetime of self-knowledge, leading to ______________________ conceptions of themselves than at earlier ages.
A) more idealistic and focused
B) less secure and simplistic
C) more secure and complex
D) less idealistic and simplistic
87) Which of the following statements is true about resilience in old age?
A) Old age is a time in which the personality inevitably becomes rigid and morale declines.
B) Most seniors show a modest age-related dip in acceptance of change.
C) A flexible, optimistic approach to life is common in old age.
D) Elders tend to score higher in extraversion than middle-aged adults.
88) Which of the following is true about religious beliefs and behaviors in old age?
A) Less than one-fourth of U.S. elders attend religious services weekly.
B) British elders generally become more religious or spiritual as they age.
C) U.S. elders generally become more religious or spiritual as they age.
D) Japanese elders generally become less religious or spiritual as they age.
89) Which of the following is true about sex differences in religious involvement and spirituality in late adulthood?
A) Women and men are equally likely to report that religion is very important to them.
B) Women are more likely than men to engage in religious activities.
C) Men are more likely than women to engage in a personal quest for connectedness with a higher power.
D) Men are more likely than women to report that religion is very important to them.
90) Religious involvement is associated with
A) higher SES.
B) less reminiscence.
C) greater death anxiety.
D) better physical health.
91) Which of the following is true about psychological well-being in late adulthood?
A) The physical impairment–depression relationship is weaker among higher-SES elders.
B) More than actual physical limitations, perceived negative physical health predicts depressive symptoms.
C) The majority of adults over age 75 suffer from chronic depression.
D) Late-life depression tends to be less severe and of shorter duration than depression earlier in life.
92) One of the strongest risk factors for late-life depression is
A) distance from family.
B) poor sleep patterns.
C) financial problems.
93) The suicide rate is highest among
B) young adults.
C) middle-aged males.
D) people age 75 and older.
94) Which of the following is true about elder suicide?
A) More elderly women than men take their own lives.
B) Ethnic minority elders have higher suicide rates than the white majority.
C) Failed suicides are much rarer in old age than in adolescence.
D) Medical examiners are more likely to pursue suicide as a cause of death when a person is old.
95) Poverty among lone elderly women is deeper in the United States than in other Western nations because
A) U.S. women live longer than women in other Western nations.
B) women in other Western nations start out wealthier.
C) widowed women in the United States are more likely to live in federally subsidized residential units.
D) of less generous government-sponsored income and health benefits.
96) Which of the following is true about late-life marriages?
A) With an increase in health and longevity, divorce and remarriage are now common in U.S. elders.
B) Perceptions of fairness in the relationship increase as men participate more in household tasks.
C) Compared to younger couples, there is less emphasis on regulating emotion.
D) Compared to younger couples, elderly couples disagree more often.
97) Which statement about late-life marital discord is correct?
A) Having close, high-quality friendships profoundly reduces the negative impact of marital discord on adjustment.
B) Men tend to expend more energy trying to work on a troubled relationship.
C) Women often protect themselves from the energy drain of a troubling relationship by avoiding discussion.
D) When marital dissatisfaction exists, it often takes a greater toll on women than on men.
98) Compared with younger adults, elders who divorce
A) find it easier to separate their identity from that of their former spouse.
B) suffer less from a sense of personal failure.
C) and remarry enter more stable relationships.
D) are less likely to spend their remaining years living alone.
99) Figures underestimate the actual incidence of elder abuse because
A) most acts take place in public settings like nursing homes, so they are not reported.
B) many social workers do not believe elders’ claims of abuse or neglect.
C) normal accidents and injuries that result from physical aging are mistaken for signs of abuse.
D) most abusive acts take place in private and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain.
100) ______________ elders are more vulnerable to maltreatment.
A) Independent B) Divorced
C) Mentally or physically impaired D) Widowed
Chapter 19 is a crossword puzzle